The past and perspective development of pasturing and tourism in the mountains: insights from Norway and Slovenia // Pretekli in predviden razvoj planinskega pašništva in turizma: vpogledi v norveške in slovenske razmere

  • Kerstin Potthoff University of Life Sciences, School of Landscape Architecture, PO 5003 NMBU, NO – 1432 Ås, Norway and University of Bergen, Department of Geography, PO 7802, NO – 5020 Bergen, Norway
  • Aleš Smrekar Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Novi trg 2, SI – 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Mateja Šmid Hribar Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Novi trg 2, SI – 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Mimi Urbanc Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Anton Melik Geographical Institute, Novi trg 2, SI – 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Keywords: livestock grazing, tourism, recreation, land-use changes, Scandinavian mountains, the Alps, Norway, Slovenia, //, planinska paša, turizem, rekreacija, spremembe v rabi zemljišč, Skandinavsko gorovje, Alpe, Norveška, Slovenija

Abstract

The paper aims to analyse the characteristics and trends in pastoral farming, tourism and recreation in the Norwegian and Slovenian mountains and resulting landscape changes. These land uses and related driving forces have been scrutinised in the context of economic, social, and political aspects. While pastoral farming has a centuries-old tradition in the higher altitudes of both countries, interest in mountains for tourism and recreational purposes dates back only to the nineteenth century but has been increasing steadily ever since. The findings of the study, based on a literature review and secondary data, suggest that the social, economic, and especially the political situation in Norway and Slovenia have been different, but the development of mountains in both countries in the field of mountain pasturing and tourism and recreation has shared more similarities than differences, although nuances and specificities should not be disregarded. It is evident that mountain pasturing in both countries is sensitive to societal changes. Further on, we can infer the synergy and the right balance between it and tourism and recreation can be an opportunity for a viable mountain economic situation and would preserve the long traditions of cooperation between the two sectors. //

 

Članek analizira značilnosti in trende pašništva in rekreacije ter posledične spremembe pokrajine v norveških in slovenskih gorah. Spremembe v rabi zemljišč in z njimi povezane gonilne sile smo preučili z ekonomskega, družbenega in političnega vidika. Planinsko pašništvo ima v obeh državah večstoletno tradicijo, zanimanje za gore iz turističnih in rekreativnih vzgibov pa se je začelo šele v 19. stoletju, vendar se od tedaj stalno povečuje. Ugotovitve te študije, ki temeljijo na pregledu obstoječe literature in sekundarnih podatkov, kažejo, da je bil družbeni, gospodarski in še posebej politični položaj na Norveškem in v Sloveniji sicer različen, vendar razvoj gorskih območij v obeh državah izkazuje več podobnosti kot razlik, pri čemur ne smemo zanemariti določenih razhajanj in posebnosti. Jasno je, da na planinsko pašništvo v obeh državah vplivajo družbene spremembe. Prav tako je očitno, da sinergija in ustrezno ravnovesje med planinskim pašništvom in turizmom ter rekreacijo nudita priložnost za vitalno gospodarsko stanje v gorah in obenem omogočata ohranitev dolgoletne tradicije sodelovanja med obema panogama.

References

Abel, N. D., Cumming, H. M., Anderies, J. M. 2006: Collapse and reorganization in social-ecological system questions, some ideas and policy implications. Ecology and Society 11-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01593-110117

Almås, R. 2002: Norges Landbrukshistorie 1920-2000. Frå bondesamfunn til bioindustri. Oslo.

Almås, R. 2004: Norwegian Agricultural History. Trondheim.

Anko, B. 1985: Terezijanski gozdni red za Kranjsko 1771. Ljubljana.

Bojnec, Š., Latruffe, L. 2013: Farm size, agricultural subsidies and farm performance in Slovenia. Land Use Policy 32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.09.016

Bryn, A. 2008: Recent forest limit changes in south-east Norway: Effects of climate change or regrowth after abandoned utilisation? Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 62-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00291950802517551

Bryn, A., Potthoff, K. 2018: Elevational treeline and forest line dynamics in Norwegian mountain areas – a review. Landscape Ecology 33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-018-0670-8

Bryn, A., Dourojeanni, P., Hemsing, L. Ø., O'Donnel, S. 2013: A high-resolution GIS null model of potential forest expansion following land use changes in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 28-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2012.689005

Bye, A. S., Aarstad, P. A., Løvberget, A. I., Høie, H. 2017: Jordbruk og miljø. Tilstand og utvikling 2017. Oslo.

Bürgi, M., Bieling, C., von Hackwitz, K., Kizos, T., Lieskovský, J., Martín, M. G., McCarthy, S., Müller, M., Palang, H., Plieninger, T., Printsmann, A. 2017: Process and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe. Landscape Ecology 32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-017-0513-z

Bürgi, M., Hersperger, A.M., Schneeberger, N. 2004: Driving forces of landscape change – current and new directions. Landscape Ecology 19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-005-0245-3

Buterez, C., Cepraga, T. 2018: The ownership was based on club and stick’: the cartographic reconstruction of a medieval monastic estate in the Buzău Region, Romania. Landscape History 39-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01433768.2018.1534461

Cerar, G., Kliner, P., Papež, M. 2011: Prihodnost agrarnih skupnosti. Zelena dežela 102.

Čerpes, I., Pandol, N., Fikfak, A. 2014: Upgrading the network of high mountain shelter as a method of restoring of demographically endangered settlements in the Slovenian Alps. European Countryside 6-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/euco-2014-0012

Cigale, D. 2007: Vplivi turizma v slovenskem alpskem svetu na vode. Dela 28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4312/dela.28.255-271

Cigale, D. 2010: Geografsko raziskovanje turizma in rekreacije v Sloveniji. Dela 33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4312/dela.33.97-110

Cigale, D. 2012: Development patterns of Slovene tourist destinations. Geografski vestnik 84-1.

Cigale, D. Lampič, B. 2019: Razvoj turistične destinacije na primeru občine Kamnik. E-GeograFF 12. Ljubljana. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4312/9789610601760

Dobnik, J. 1991: Vodniki po planinskih postojankah v Republiki Sloveniji. Ljubljana.

Dobnik, J. 2007: Vodnik po planinskih kočah v Sloveniji. Ljubljana.

Eiter, S. 2004: Protected areas in Norwegian mountains: Cultural landscape conservation – whose landscape? Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 58-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00291950410009217

Eiter, S., Potthoff, K. 2007: Improving the factual knowledge of landscapes: Following up the European Landscape Convention with a comparative historical analysis of forces of landscape change in the Sjodalen and Stølsheimen mountain areas, Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 61-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00291950701709127

Eiter, S., Potthoff, K. 2016: Landscape changes in Norwegian mountains: Increased and decreased accessibility, and their driving forces. Land Use Policy 54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.02.017

Ferrario, V., Castiglioni, B. 2015: Hydropower exploitation in the Piave river basin (Italian Eastern Alps). Renewable Energies and European Landscapes: Lessons from the Southern European Cases. Dordrecht. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9843-3_9

Flere S, Klanjšek, R. 2014: Was Tito's Yugoslavia totalitarian? Communist and Post-Communist Studies 47-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postcomstud.2014.04.009

Flognfeldt, T. 2002: Second-home ownership: A sustainable semi-migration. Tourism and Migration: New Relationships between Production and Consumption. Dordrecht. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3554-4_10

Flognfeldt, T. 2004: Second homes as a part of a new rural lifestyle in Norway. Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes: Between Elite Landscape and Common Ground. Clevedon. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21832/9781873150825-017

Funder, L. 1916: Om høifjeldets utnyttelse. Kristiania.

Gabellieri, N., Watkins, C. 2019: Measuring long-term landscape change using historical photographs and the WSL Monoplotting Tool. Landscape History 40-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01433768.2019.1600946

Gabrovec, M., Kladnik, D. 1997: Some new aspects of land use in Slovenia. Geografski zbornik 37.

Gabrovec, M., Kumer, P. 2019: Land-use changes in Slovenia from the Franciscean cadaster until today. Acta geographica Slovenica 59-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.4892

Genovese, D., Culasso, F., Giacosa, E., Battaglini, L. M. 2017: Can livestock farming and tourism coexist in mountain regions? A new business model for sustainability. Sustainability 9-11. DOI: https://10.3390/su9112021

Gjerdåker, B. 2002: Norges Landbrukshistorie 1814-1920. Kontinuitet og modernitet. Oslo.

Gjerdåker, B. 2004: Continuity and modernity 1815–1920. Norwegian Agricultural History. Trondheim.

Hemsing, L., Bryn, A. 2012: Attgroing, hytter og sau. Sau og Geit 2.

Hidle, K. 2013: Second homes in Norway - changing cabins, changing ruralities. Norway: Nature, Industry and Society. Bergen.

Horvat, U. 2004: Tourism in Slovenia. Slovenia: A Geographical Overview. Ljubljana.

Hrvatin, M., Perko, D. 2018: Morfometrični tipi pokrajinskih vročih in mrzlih točk v Sloveniji. Geografski vestnik 90-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV90202

Hveding, V. 1992: Hydropower Development in Norway. Trondheim.

Internet 1: http://www.velikaplanina.si/o-nas/projekt-po-stopinjah-pastirjev (2. 7. 2020).

Internet 2: https://ourworldindata.org/democracy (2. 7. 2020).

Jones, M. 2010: The heritage of landscape – driving force or counterforce? Landscape and Driving Forces. Strasbourg.

Kaltenborn, B. P., Andersen, O., Nellemann, C. 2007: Second home development in the Norwegian mountains: Is it outgrowing the planning capability. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 3-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17451590709618158

Kaltenborn, B. P., Andersen, O., Nellemann, C., Bjerke, T., Thrane, C. 2008: Resident attitudes towards mountain second-home tourism development in Norway: the effects of environmental attitudes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 16-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802159685

Kuiper, E., Bryn, A. 2013: Forest regrowth and cultural heritage sites in Norway and along the Norwegian St Olav pilgrim routes. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services and Management 9-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2012.711774

Langdalen, E. 1965: Natur og menneskeverk i fjellet. Fjellbygd og Feriefjell. Oslo.

Langdalen, E. 1980: Second homes in Norway – a controversial planning problem. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 34.

Ledinek Lozej, Š. 2012: Planšarstvo: predstavitev primera paše in predelave mleka v visokogorski bohinjski planini Krstenica. Etnologija in slovenske pokrajine: Gorenjska. Ljubljana.

Ledinek Lozej, Š. 2013: Grazing and dairying in the mountain pastures of Triglav national park: Cultural heritage and current questions. Traditiones 42-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/Traditio2013420203

MacDonald, D., Crabtree, J. R., Wiesinger, G., Dax, T., Stamou, N., Fleury, P., Gutierrez Lazpita, J., Gibon, A. 2000: Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response. Journal of Environmental Management 59-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.1999.0335

Mavri, R. 2018: Priporočila za trajnostno načrtovanje rekreacije na prostem v zavarovanih območjih Slovenije. Geografski vestnik 90-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV90103

Mayer, M., Job, H. 2010: Raumrelevante Konflikte zwischen Almwirtschaft, Naturschutz und Tourismus: Ergebnisse einer Befragung in den oberbayerischen Alpen. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 42-2.

McDonagh, B. 2019: Landscape, territory and common rights in medieval East Yorkshire. Landscape History 40-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01433768.2020.1676043

Melik, A. 1950: Planine v Julijskih Alpah. Ljubljana.

Mihaljević, J., Miljan, G. 2020: Was Tito’s Yugoslavia not totalitarian? Istorija 20. veka 38-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29362/ist20veka.2020.1.mih.223-248

Mikša, P., Zorn, M. 2016: The beginnings of the research of Slovenian Alps. Geografski vestnik 88-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV88206

Ministry of Climate and Environment 1996: Outdoor Recreation Act. Internet: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/outdoor-recreation-act/id172932 (10. 5. 2019).

Mottet, A., Ladet, S., Coqué, N., Gibon, A. 2006: Agricultural land-use change and its drivers in mountain landscapes: A case study in the Pyrenees. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114, 2-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.11.017

Nared, J., Razpotnik Visković, N., Cremer-Schulte, D., Brozzi, R., Cortines Garcia, F. 2015: Achieving sustainable spatial development in the Alps through participatory planning. Acta geographica Slovenica 55-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.1631

Olsson, E. G. A., Austrheim, G., Grenne, S. N. 2000: Landscape change patterns in mountains, land use and environmental diversity, Mid-Norway 1960-1993. Landscape Ecology 15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008173628016

Olsson, E. G. A., Hanssen, S. K., Rønningen, K. 2004: Different conservation values of biological diversity? A case study from the Jotunheimen mountain range, Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 58-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00291950410002700

Opačić, V. T, Koderman, M. 2019: Interrelations between spatial distribution of tourism and the second homes in Croatia and Slovenia. Geografski vestnik 91-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV91103

Paunović, I., Jovanović, V. 2019: Sustainable mountain tourism in word and deed: A comparative analysis in the macro regions of the Alps and the Dinarides. Acta geographica Slovenica 59-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.4630

Pehani, A. 2000: The interest in mountains for recreational purposes. Personal correspondence, Ljubljana.

Perko, D. 1998: The regionalization of Slovenia. Geografski zbornik 38.

Perko, D., Ciglič, R. 2020: Slovenia's landscapes. The Geography of Slovenia: Small But Diverse. Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14066-3_14

Petek, F. 2005: Spremembe rabe tal v slovenskem alpskem svetu. Geografija Slovenije 11. Ljubljana. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/9789612545123

Petek, F., Urbanc, M. 2007: Skupna zemljišča v Sloveniji. Geografski vestnik 79-2.

Plieninger, T., Draux, H., Fagerholm, N., Bieling, C., Bürgi, M., Kizos, T., Kuemmerle, T., Primdahl, J.,

Polajnar Horvat, K., Ribeiro, D. 2019: Izzivi v turističnem sektorju: kako se evropske turistične destinacije soočajo s preturizmom. Geografski vestnik 91-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV91104

Potthoff, K. 2004: Change in mountain summer farming practices: A case study from Stølsheimen, Western Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 58-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00291950410009181

Premrl, T. 2013: Analiza stanja agrarnih skupnosti v Sloveniji na podlagi podatkov upravnih enot. Raziskovalno poročilo, Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije. Ljubljana.

Prescott, C. 1999: Long-term patterns of non-agrarian exploitation in souther Norwegian highlands. Settlement and Landscape. Proceedings of a conference in Århus. Højbjerg.

Price, M. F. 2015: Mountains. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford.

Razpotnik Visković, N., Seručnik, M. 2013: Ugled kmečkega poklica in polkmetov v slovenski družbi po drugi svetovni vojni. Geografski vestnik 85-1.

Rebolj, V., Malešič, F. 2008: Zven časa na Veliki planini (časovna preglednica). Internet: http://www.v-planina.v-rebolj.com/teksti/zven_casa_vp.pdf (11. 4. 2019).

Reinton, L. 1955: Sæterbruket i Noreg I. Sætertypar og driftsformer. Oslo.

Reinton, L. 1961: Sæterbruket i Noreg III. Oslo.

Rejec Brancelj, I., Smrekar, A. 2000: Gorska ranljiva območja – primer Triglavskega narodnega parka. Pokrajinsko ranljiva območja v Sloveniji. Geographica Slovenica 33-1.

Rekdal, Y., Angeloff, M. 2012: Jordvern i utmark. Sau og Geit 3.

Ribeiro, D., Šmid Hribar, M. 2019: Assessment of land-use changes and their impacts on ecosystem services in two Slovenian rural landscapes. Acta geographica Slovenica 59-2. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.6636

Ringler, A. 2009: Almen und Alpen. Ökologie, Nutzung, Perspektiven. München.

Rodela, R. 2012: Uvod v skupno lastnino in skupno upravljanje naravnih virov. Soupravljanje naravnih virov: vaške skupnosti in sorodne oblike skupne lastnine in skupnega upravljanja. Wageningen.

Rye, F. J. 2011: Conflicts and contestations. Rural populations' perspectives on the second home phenomenon. Journal of Rural Studies 27-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.03.005

Schlamberger, V. 1995: Planine in skupni pašniki v Sloveniji. Ljubljana.

Senegačnik, J. 1985: Planinsko gospodarstvo v slovenskih Alpah. Elaborat, Inštitut za geografijo Univerze v Ljubljani. Ljubljana.

Sevatdal, H. 1998: Common property in Norway's rural areas. Law and the Governance of Renewable Resources: Studies from Northern Europe and Africa. Oakland.

Sevatdal, H., Grimstad, S. 2003: Norwegian Commons: history, status and challenges. Commons: Old and New. Trondheim.

Skoglund, R.Ø. 2013: Physical geography, landforms and climate. Norway: Nature, Industry and Society. Bergen.

Skowronek, E., Tucki, A., Hijebens, E., Jóźwik, M. 2018: What is the tourist landscape? Aspects and features of the concept. Acta geographica Slovenica 58-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.3311

Služba za register kmetijskih gospodarstev. Ministrstvo za kmetijstvo, gozdarstvo in prehrano. Ljubljana, 2019.

Smrekar, A., Polajnar Horvat, K., Erhartič, B. 2016: The beauty of landforms. Acta geographica Slovenica 56-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.3039

Statens landbruksforvaltning 2006: Statistikk fra søknader om produksjonstilskudd i jordbruket. Internet: http://32.247.61.17/skf/prodrapp.htm (20. 1. 2006).

Statistics Norway 2019a: This is Norway 2019. Statistics Norway. Oslo.

Statistics Norway 2019b: 06952: Byggeareal. Fritidsbygninger, etter statistikkvariabel og år. Internet: https://www.ssb.no/statbank/table/06952/ (26. 3. 2019).

Statistics Norway 2020: Areal av land og ferskvatn. Internet: https://www.ssb.no/natur-og-miljo/statistikker/arealdekke (02.07.2020). Statskogs eiendommer. Internet: https://www.statskog.no/eiendom/statskogs-eiendommer (2. 7. 2020).

Statistisk Sentralbyrå 1962: Jordbruksteljinga i Noreg. 20. Juni 1959. Tredje Hefte. Eige- og leigetilhøve, Arbeidskraft m.m. ved bruk med over 5 dekar jordbruksareal. Norges Offisielle Statistikk XII 71. Oslo.

Statistisk Sentralbyrå 1982: Landbruksteljing. 20. Juni 1979. Hefte I. Eigedomstilhøve — Arealressursar. Norges Offisielle Statistikk B 258. Otta.

Stensgaard, K. 2017: Hvordan står det til på setra? Registrering av setermiljøer i perioden 2009–2015. NIBIO Rapport 3. Ås.

Šmid Hribar, M., Bole, D., Urbanc, M. 2015: Public and common goods in the cultural landscape. Geografski vestnik 87-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV87203

Šmid Hribar, M., Kozina, J., Bole, D., Urbanc, M. 2018: Public goods, common-pool resources, and the commons: The influence of historical legacy on modern perceptions in Slovenia as a transitional society. Urbani izziv 29-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5379/urbani-izziv-2018-29-01-004

Tappeiner, U., Borsdorf, A., Tasser, E. 2008: Alpenatlas, Atlas des Alpes, Atlante delle Alpi, Atlas Alp, Mapping the Alps. Society – Economy – Environment. Heidelberg.

Taugbøl, T., Vistad, O. I., Nellemann, C., Kaltenborn, B., Flyen, A. C., Swensen, G., Nybakken, A., Lein, K., Sivertsen, J. B., Gurigard, K. 2000: Hyttebygging i Norge. En oppsummering og vurdering av ulike miljø og samfunnsmessige effekter av hyttebygging i fjell- og skogtraktene i Sør-Norge. Lillehammer.

Tiran, J., Bole, D., Gašperič, P., Kozina, J., Kumer, P., Pipan, P. 2019: Vrednotenje družbene trajnostnosti malega industrijskega mesta: primer Velenja. Geografski vestnik 91-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV91204

Travnikar, T., Juvančič, L. 2018: Prostorski vzorec vključevanja slovenskih kmetijskih gospodarstev v ekološko kmetovanje. Geografski vestnik 90-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV90203

Urbanc, M., Breg Valjavec, M., Ribeiro, D., Šmid Hribar, M. 2021: Distinctive cultural landscapes on karst terrain. Landscapes and Landforms of Slovenia. Cham. (in preparation)

Vojvoda, M. 1967: Spreminjanje gospodarskih funkcij in fiziognomije sezonsko poseljenega pasu v slovenskih Alpah. Elaborat, Inštitut za geografijo Univerze v Ljubljani. Ljubljana.

Vojvoda, M., Tončič, L. 1973: Preobrazba gorskega sezonsko pastirsko poseljenega področja Slovenije. Elaborat, Inštitut za geografijo Univerze v Ljubljani. Ljubljana.

Walker, B. H., Anderies, J. M., Kinzig, A. P., Ryan, P. 2006: Exploring resilience in social-ecological systems through comparative studies and theory development: introduction to the special issue. Ecology and Society 11-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01573-110112

Zakon o agrarnih skupnostih. Uradni list Ljudske Republike Slovenije 52/1947. Ljubljana.

Zakon o agrarnih skupnostih. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 74/2015. Ljubljana.

Zakon o denacionalizaciji. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 27/1991. Ljubljana.

Zakon o gozdih. Uradni list kraljevske banske uprave dravske banovine I-35/1930. Ljubljana.

Zakon o gozdovih. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 30/1993. Ljubljana.

Zakon o kmetijskih zemljiščih. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 71/2011. Ljubljana.

Zakon o ponovni vzpostavitvi agrarnih skupnosti ter vrnitvi njihovega premoženja. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 5/1994. Ljubljana.

Zakon o razpolaganju s premoženjem bivših agrarnih skupnosti. Uradni list Socialistične republike Slovenije 7/65. Ljubljana.

Zakon o Triglavskem narodnem parku. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 52/2010. Ljubljana.

Zega, D. 1985: Zgodovinski pregled. Triglavski narodni park: vodnik. Bled.

Published
2020-12-31
Section
Articles/članki