Primerjalna raziskava Platonove poetike in poetike Korana

  • Massih Zekavat
Ključne besede: Platon, Koran, primerjalna poetika, literatura, poezija, resnica, navdih

Povzetek

Poetika lahko prispeva k primerjalnim raziskavam in raziskavam svetovne književnosti ter spodbudi vzajemno razumevanje, ki presega meje. V članku avtor primerja Platonovo poetiko in poetiko Korana kot temeljnih besedil dveh velikih književnih, kulturnih in zgodovinskih tradicij. Oba obsojata pesnike in poezijo zaradi različnih razlogov, med drugim zaradi njihove nezvestobe resnici, njihovega odnosa do obsedenosti, navdiha in norosti ter zaradi moralnih in družbenopolitičnih vprašanj. Toda njuna drža ni absolutno odklonilna, ampak prej ambivalentna. Po eni strani pesnike in poezijo obsojata, po drugi pa dopuščata izjeme in se celo zatekata k možnostim, ki jih ponujajo, da bi dosegla svoje cilje. Kljub podobnim obtožbam pesnikov in poezije so med Platonom in Koranom razvidne razlike v njunih stališčih in razlogih za njune pomisleke, ki so večinoma posledica njunih zgodovinsko pogojenih predstav o družbeni, politični in zgodovinski funkciji poezije ter o njenem domnevno nadčloveškem izvoru. Izkaže se, da je pri Platonu in v Koranu poezija tesno povezana z vzhičenostjo, navdihom, ekstazo in norostjo, hkrati pa opravlja pomembne družbenopolitične ali »svetovljanske« funkcije. Ti dve tradiciji torej verjameta, da lahko literatura prestopi materialne meje in seže čeznje, ne da bi pri tem zapustila materialne teritorije. Ambivalenten položaj poezije in literature jima omogoča, da ponudita alternativo dvojni logiki (nasprotja) in/ali fundamentalizmu, od katerih nobeden ne sprejema, kaj šele spodbuja, poezije. Poleg spodbujanja medkulturnega razumevanja, tolerance in miru lahko primerjalna raziskava Platonove poetike in poetike Korana ponudi alternative tradicionalni logiki in razumevanju ter omogoči, da se možna in osvobajajoča dejanja performiranja identitete primerno cenijo in spodbujajo.

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