Yeatsove maske in Pessoovi heteronimi v luči zahodnega ezoterizma

  • Lara Gea Vurnik Navinšek
Ključne besede: irska književnost, portugalska književnost, modernizem, Yeats, William Butler, Pessoa, Fernando, zahodni ezoterizem, okultizem, maska, heteronimi

Povzetek

Članek obravnava vpliv zahodnega ezoterizma oziroma okultizma na življenje in delo Williama Butlerja Yeatsa in Fernanda Pessoe. Pri tem je posebna pozornost posvečena pesniški tehniki »kreativne disociacije« od lastnega jaza ali »depersonalizacije«, kot je svojo heteronimijo označil Pessoa. Gre za bistveno skupno potezo Yeatsove in Pessoove poetike, ki ni le paradigmatsko modernistična, temveč tudi poudarjeno ezoterična. Kot ezoterične razumemo različne tokove, ki so se skozi zgodovino razvili vzporedno z organizirano religijo na eni in razsvetljenskim racionalizmom na drugi strani ter s tem tvorijo t. i. »tretji steber zahodne kulture«. Yeatsovo teorijo maske so v veliki meri definirale tudi ideje, ki jih je pridobil v svojih letih članstva v Hermetičnem redu Zlate zore, na nastanek Pessoovih heteronimov pa je vplivalo njegovo prakticiranje spiritizma, medijstva in avtomatskega pisanja. Delo obeh avtorjev tako lahko razumemo kot modernistični umetniški izraz, ki se je izoblikoval v tesnem kontaktu z zahodnim ezoterizmom.

Literatura

Bergles, Ciril. »Velika Pessoova oda pomorščakom«. Spremna beseda. Pomorska oda/Ode Maritima. Fernando Pessoa. Prev. Ciril Bergles. Ljubljana: Škuc, 2002. 59–67.

Bogdan, Henrik. Western Esotericism and Rituals of Initiation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

Dix, Steffen. »Democratization and the Aristocracy of the Occult: Fernando Pessoa between Theosophy and Rosacrucianism«. Pessoa Plural 6 (2014): 1–19.

Ellmann, Richard. Yeats: The Man and the Masks. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 2000.

Ellmann, Richard. »Robartes and Aherne: Two Sides of a Penny«. The Kenyon Review 10.2 (1948): 177–186.

Faivre, Antoine. Access to Western Esotericism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Flannery, Mary C. Yeats and Magic: The Early Works. London: Colin Smythe, 1977.

Ghahremani Kouredarei, Hamid, in Nahid Shahbazi Moghadam. »W. B. Yeats and the Introduction of Heteronym into the Western Literary Canon«. Studi Irlandesi: A Journal of Irish Studies 8.8 (2018): 357–375.

Grosso, Michael. »Inspiration, Mediumship, Surrealism: The Concept of Creative Dissociation«. Broken Images, Broken Selves: Dissociative Narratives in Clinical Practice. Ur. Stanley Krippner in Susan Marie Powers. Bristol: Brunner/Mazel, 1997. 181–198.

Hanegraaff, Wouter J. New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Hanegraaff, Wouter J. Western Esotericism: A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.

Johnston Graf, Susan. W. B. Yeats – Twentieth-Century Magus. York Beach: Samuel Weiser, 2000.

Kotowicz, Zbigniew. Fernando Pessoa: Voices of a Nomadic Soul. Exeter; London: Shearsman Books; The Menard Press, 2008.

McNeill, Patrícia Silva. »The Alchemical Path: Esoteric Influence in the Works of Fernando Pessoa and W. B. Yeats«. Fernando Pessoa’s Modernity Without Frontiers: Influences, Dialogues and Responses. Ur. Mariana Gray de Castro. Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2013. 157–168.

McNeill, Patrícia Silva. »Sacred Geometry of Being: Pessoa’s Esoteric Imagery and the Geometry of Modernism«. Pessoa Plural 6 (2014): 21–45.

McNeill, Patrícia Silva. Yeats and Pessoa: Parallel Poetic Styles. London: Legenda, 2010.

Mills Harper, Margaret, in Catherine E. Paul. »Notes«. A Vision: The Revised 1937 Edition. W. B. Yeats. Ur. Margaret Mills Harper in Catherine E. Paul. New York: Scribner, 2015. 299–468.

Pasi, Marco. Aleister Crowley and the Temptation of Politics. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014.

Pasi, Marco. »Hilma af Klint, Western Esotericism and the Problem of Modern Artistic Creativity«. Hilma af Klint: The Art of Seeing the Invisible. Ur. Kurt Almqvist in Louise Belfrage. Stockholm: Axel and Margaret Ax:son Johnson Foundation, 2015. 101–116.

Pasi, Marco. »The Influence of Aleister Crowley on Fernando Pessoa’s Esoteric Writings«. Ésoterisme, Gnoses et Imaginaire Symbolique: Mélanges offerts à Antoine Faivre. Leuven: Peeters, 2001. 693–711.

Pessoa, Fernando. »Carta a Adolfo Casais Monteiro – 13 Jan. 1935«. Escritos Íntimos, Cartas e Páginas Autobiográficas. Ur. António Quadros. Mem Martins: Publicações Europa-América, 1986. 199.

Pessoa, Fernando. »Carta à Tia Anica – 24 Jun. 1916«. Escritos Íntimos, Cartas e Páginas Autobiográficas. Ur. António Quadros. Mem Martins: Publicações Europa-América, 1986. 127.

Pessoa, Fernando. »The Creation of Caeiro and of the Discipleship of Reis and Campos...«. Pessoa por Conhecer – Textos para um novo Novo Mapa. Ur. Teresa Rita Lopes. Lizbona: Estampa, 1990. 248.

Pessoa, Fernando. »Nota Biográfica«. Escritos Íntimos, Cartas e Páginas Autobiográficas. Ur. António Quadros. Mem Martins: Publicações Europa-América, 1986. 252.

Pessoa, Fernando. Psihotipija: izbrano delo. Prev. Miklavž Komelj, Mojca Medvešček in Ciril Bergles. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 2007.

Pessoa, Fernando. »Sentir tudo de todas as maneiras«. Álvaro de Campos – Livro de Versos. Ur. Teresa Rita Lopes. Lizbona: Estampa, 1993. 26a.

Pessoa, Fernando. »Tábua Bibliográfica«. Presença 17 (1928): 250.

Pessoa, Fernando. »1. Todos os fenómenos se passam no espaço«. Pessoa Inédito. Ur. Teresa Rita Lopes. Lizbona: Livros Horizonte, 1993. 146.

Regardie, Israel. The Golden Dawn: The Original Account of the Teachings, Rites and Ceremonies of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Stella Matutina). St. Paul: Llewellyn, 2005.

Steiner, George. »A Man of Many Parts«. The Observer. 3. 6. 2001. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2001/jun/03/poetry.features1

Suaréz, José I. »Fernando Pessoa’s Acknowledged Involvement with the Occult«. Hispania 90.2 (2007): 245–252.

Yeats, William Butler. »Magic«. Early Essays. Ur. George Bornstein in Richard J. Finneran. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007. 25–41.

Yeats, William Butler. »A People’s Theatre: A Letter to Lady Gregory«. The Collected Works of W. B. Yeats: The Irish Dramatic Movement. Ur. Mary FitzGerald in Richard J. Finneran. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003. 197–213.

Yeats, William Butler. Per Amica Silentia Lunae. New York: Macmillan, 1918.

Yeats, William Butler. »Rosa Alchemica«. The Secret Rose, Stories by W. B. Yeats: A Variorum Edition. Ur. Warwick Gould, Phillip L. Marcus in Michael J. Sidnell. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1992. 126–150.

Yeats, William Butler. A Vision: The Revised 1937 Edition. Ur. Margaret Mills Harper in Catherine E. Paul. New York: Scribner, 2015.

Objavljeno
2020-11-08
Rubrike
Razprave