Določanje centra in periferije ter geografija drugega

  • Jonathan Locke Hart
Ključne besede: literatura in geografija, kanadska književnost, center, periferija, kulturna identiteta, drugost, hibridnost, globalizacija

Povzetek

Nekatere književnosti, na primer kanadsko, lahko štejemo za manjše ali manj pomembne, ker Kanada ni svetovna velesila. Toda v resnici so kanadska književnost in druge bodisi velike ali majhne literature del kulturne zgodovine, ki ni le lokalna ali celo nacionalna, ampak mednarodna. Območja kulture in literature se dobesedno ali metaforično spreminjajo skozi čas. V tem članku s primerjalno metodo preučujemo besedila, na primer Sago o Eriku Rdečem in dela Columbusa, Verrazzana, Jeannette C. Armstrong, Marie Annharte Baker in Carrie Best, da bi prikazali premičnost meja v času in prostoru ter raziskali povezave med kulturami in književnostmi v Kanadi, Evropi, na območju Atlantika ter na mednarodni ravni kot del dolgotrajne globalizacije. Članek dokazuje, da hibridnost, ki je posledica medkulturnega stika in kolonizacije, običajno zamegljuje razliko med središčem in obrobjem ter razkriva zgodovinsko fluidnost političnih meja, na katerih temeljijo koncepti nacionalne in svetovne književnosti. Pri tem se osredotoča na to, kako se je Severna Amerika, zlasti Kanada, v zgodovinskem procesu odkrivanja, naselitve in kolonizacije povezala z drugimi deli sveta.

Literatura

Alison, Aurosa. Epistémologie et esthétique de l’espace chez Gaston Bachelard. Milan: Éditions Mimesis, 2019.

Armstrong, Jeannette. “History Lesson.” Native Poetry in Canada: A Contemporary Anthology. Ed. Jeannette Armstrong and Lally Grauer. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2001. 110.

Bachelard, Gaston. La poétique de l’espace. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1957.

Backhouse, Constance. “I Was Unable to Identify with Topsy: Carrie M. Best’s Struggle Against Racial Segregation in Nova Scotia, 1942.” Atlantis 22.2 (1998): 16–26.

Baker, Marie Annharte. “Coyote Columbus Café.” Native Poetry in Canada: A Contemporary Anthology. Ed. Jeannette Armstrong and Lally Grauer. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2001. 75.

Baldwin, T. W. William Shakspere’s Small Latine & Lesse Greeke. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1944.

Best, Carrie M. “Soujourner Truth.” That Lonesome Road. Carrie M. Best: A Digital Archive. New Glasgow: n. p., 1977. Access 10. 10. 2021. http://www.parl.ns.ca/carriebest/truth.html

Best, Carrie M. “Transcript of Presentation to the Donald Marshall Inquiry, Halifax, N.S. Chairman, Mr. Thomas R. Berger, Nov. 1988.” Carrie M. Best: A Digital Archive. Access 10. 10. 2021. http://www.parl.ns.ca/carriebest/marshall.html

Cartier, Jacques. Relations. Ed. Michel Bideaux. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 1986.

Chimisso, Cristina. Gaston Bachelard: Critic of Science and the Imagination. London; New York, NY: Routledge, 2001.

Chimisso, Cristina. “Gaston Bachelard’s Places of the Imagination and Images of Space.” Place, Space and Hermeneutics. Ed. Bruce B. Janz. Cham: Springer, 2017. 183–195.

Columbus, Christopher. The Voyage of Christopher Columbus: Columbus’ Own Journal of Discovery Newly Restored and Translated. Ed. John Cummins. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1992.

“Commission délivrée à Cartier (17 octobre 1540).” Relations. By Jacques Cartier. Ed. Michel Bideaux. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 1986. 233–235.

Derrida, Jacques. Marges de la philosophie. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1972.

Derrida, Jacques. Psyché: inventions de l’autre. Paris: Galilée, 1987.

Folger, Tim. “Why Did Greenland’s Vikings Vanish?” 3. 2017. Smithsonian Magazine. Access 10. 10. 2021. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/why-greenlandvikings-vanished-180962119/

Hart, Jonathan. Columbus, Shakespeare, and the Interpretation of the New World. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Hart, Jonathan. Empires and Colonies. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008.

Hart, Jonathan. The Poetics of Otherness: War, Trauma, and Literature. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Hartman, Geoffrey. Scars of the Spirit: The Struggle Against Inauthenticity. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.

Kristeva, Julia. Étrangers à nous-mêmes. Paris: Fayard, 1988.

“L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site.” Last change 15. 8. 2019. Government of Canada. Parks Canada. Access 10. 10. 2021. https://www.pc.gc.ca/en/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/info

Lévinas, Emmanuel. Entre-nous: essais sur le penser-à-l’autre. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1991.

McIlwraith, Naomi. Kiyâm. Edmonton: Athabasca University Press, 2012.

McLeod, Susanna. “Carrie Best.” 31. 1. 2019. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Access 10. 10. 2021. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/carrie-best

Miller, J. Hillis. On Literature. London; New York, NY: Routledge, 2002.

Moreno-Mayar, J. et al. “Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan Genome Reveals First Founding Population of Native Americans.” Nature 553 (2018): 203–207.

The Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Raff, Jennifer. “What the Ancient DNA Discovery Tells Us about Native American Ancestry.” 3. 1. 2018. The Guardian. Access 10. 10. 2021. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/jan/03/what-the-ancient-dna-discovery-tells-us-about-native-american-ancestry

Star, Bastiaan, Barrett, James H., Gondek, Agata T., and Sanne Boessenkool. “Ancient DNA Reveals the Chronology of Walrus Ivory Trade from Norse Greenland.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences) 285.1884 (2018): 1–9.

“The Saga of Eric the Red.” The Finding of Wineland The Good. The History of the Icelandic Discovery of America. Ed. and trans. Arthur Middleton Reeves. London: Henry Frowde, 1890. 19–52.

Verrazzano, Giovanni da. “Letter to King Francis 1 of France 8 July 1524 Reporting on His Voyage to the New World.” The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano, 1524–1528. Ed. Lawrence C. Wroth. Transl. Susan Tarrow. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1970.
Objavljeno
2021-11-12
Rubrike
Razprave